# Mathematics

The Mathematics curriculum at Essendon North Primary School is designed to achieve high quality learning outcomes for every child in every classroom. The school incorporates the Victorian Essential Learning Standards as a framework to plan and monitor the developmental learning of individuals and small groups of students with similar learning needs.

### Prep (VELS Level 1)

**Number** ~ At Level 1, students form small sets of objects from simple descriptions and make simple correspondences between those sets. They count the size of small sets using the numbers 0 to 20. They use one-to-one correspondence to identify when two sets are equal in size and when one set is larger than another. They form collections of sets of equal size. They use ordinal numbers to describe the position of elements in a set from first to tenth. They use materials to model addition and subtraction of subtraction by the aggregation (grouping together) and disaggregation (moving apart) of objects. They add and subtract by counting forward and backward using the numbers from 0 to 20.

**Space** ~ At Level 1, students recognise, copy and draw points, lines and simple free-hand curves. They identify basic two-dimensional shapes such as triangles, circles and squares and three-dimensional solids and objects such as boxes and balls. They recognise the interior and exterior of shapes and objects. They sort geometric objects according to simple descriptions. They place and orientate shapes according to simple descriptions such as *next to* , *beside*, *in front of*, *behind*, *over* and *under*. They develop and follow simple instructions to move and place shapes and objects in familiar situations in relation to what they can see, and to move themselves from one place to another.

**Measurement, Chance and Data** ~ At Level 1, students compare length, area, capacity and mass of familiar objects using descriptive terms such as *longer*, *taller*, *larger*, *holds more* and *heavier*. They make measurements using informal units such as paces for length, handprints for area, glasses for capacity, and bricks for weight. They recognise the continuity of time and the natural cycles such as day/night and the seasons. They correctly sequence days of the week. They use informal units such as heartbeats and hand claps at regular intervals to measure and describe the passage of time. They recognise and respond to unpredictability and variability in events, such as getting or not getting a certain number on the roll of a die in a game or the outcome of a coin toss. They collect and display data related to their own activities using simple pictographs.

**Working Mathematically** ~ At Level 1, students use diagrams and materials to investigate mathematical and real life situations. They explore patterns in number and space by manipulating objects according to simple rules (for example, turning letters to make patterns like *bqbqbq*, or flipping to make *bdbdbdbd*). They test simple conjectures such as ‘nine is four more than five’. They make rough estimates and check their work with respect to computations and constructions in Number, Space, and Measurement, chance and data. They devise and follow ways of recording computations using the digit keys and +, – and = keys on a four function calculator. They use drawing tools such as simple shape templates and geometry software to draw points, lines, shapes and simple patterns. They copy a picture of a simple composite shape such as a child’s sketch of a house.

**Years 1 and 2 (VELS Level 2)**

**Number** ~ At Level 2, students model the place value of the natural numbers from 0 to 1000. They order numbers and count to 1000 by 1s, 10s and 100s. Students skip count by 2s, 4s and 5s from 0 to 100 starting from any natural number. They form patterns and sets of numbers based on simple criteria such as odd and even numbers. They order money amounts in dollars and cents and carry out simple money calculations. They describe simple fractions such as one half, one third and one quarter in terms of equal sized parts of a whole object, such as a quarter of a pizza, and subsets such as half of a set of 20 coloured pencils. They add and subtract one- and two-digit numbers by counting on and counting back. They mentally compute simple addition and subtraction calculations involving one- or two-digit natural numbers, using number facts such as complement to 10, doubles and near doubles. They describe and calculate simple multiplication as repeated addition, such as 3 × 5 = 5 + 5 + 5; and division as sharing, such as 8 shared between 4. They use commutative and associative properties of addition and multiplication in mental computation (for example, 3 + 4 = 4 + 3 and 3 + 4 + 5 can be done as 7 + 5 or 3 + 9).

**Space** ~ At Level 2, students recognise lines, surfaces and planes, corners and boundaries; familiar two-dimensional shapes including rectangles, rhombuses and hexagons, and three-dimensional shapes and objects including pyramids, cones, and cylinders. They arrange a collection of geometric shapes, such as a set of attribute blocks, into subsets according to simple criteria, and recognise when one set of shapes is a subset of another set of shapes. They recognise and describe symmetry, asymmetry, and congruence in these shapes and objects. They accurately draw simple two-dimensional shapes by hand and construct, copy and combine these shapes using drawing tools and geometry software. They apply simple transformations to shapes (*flips*, turns, slides and enlargements) and depict both the original and transformed shape together. They specify location as a relative position, including left and right, and interpret simple networks, diagrams and maps involving a small number of points, objects or locations.

**Measurement, Chance and Data** ~ At Level 2, students make, describe and compare measurements of length, area, volume, mass and time using informal units. They recognise the differences between non-uniform measures, such as hand-spans, to measure length, and uniform measures, such as icy-pole sticks. They judge relative capacity of familiar objects and containers by eye and make informal comparisons of weight by hefting. They describe temperature using qualitative terms (for example, cold, warm, hot). Students use formal units such as hour and minute for time, litre for capacity and the standard units of metres, kilograms and seconds. Students recognise the key elements of the calendar and place in sequence days, weeks and months. They describe common and familiar time patterns and such as the time, duration and day of regular sport training and tell the time at hours and half-hours using an analogue clock, and to hours and minutes using a digital clock. Students predict the outcome of chance events, such as the rolling of a die, using qualitative terms such as certain, likely, unlikely and impossible. They collect simple categorical and numerical data (count of frequency) and present this data using pictographs and simple bar graphs.

**Working Mathematically** ~ At Level 2, students make and test simple conjectures by finding examples, counter-examples and special cases and informally decide whether a conjecture is likely to be true. They use place value to enter and read displayed numbers on a calculator. They use a four-function calculator, including use of the constant addition function and *x* key, to check the accuracy of mental and written estimations and approximations and solutions to simple number sentences and equations.

**Years 3 and 4 (VELS Level 3)**

**Number** ~ At Level 3, students use place value (as the idea that ‘ten of these is one of those’) to determine the size and order of whole numbers to tens of thousands, and decimals to hundredths. They round numbers up and down to the nearest unit, ten, hundred, or thousand. They develop fraction notation and compare simple common fractions such as 3 /4 > 2 / 3 using physical models. They skip count forwards and backwards, from various starting points using multiples of 2, 3, 4, 5, 10 and 100. They estimate the results of computations and recognise whether these are likely to be over-estimates or under-estimates. They compute with numbers up to 30 using all four operations. They provide automatic recall of multiplication facts up to
10 × 10. They devise and use written methods for whole number problems of addition and subtraction involving numbers up to 999, multiplication by single digits (using recall of multiplication tables) and multiples and powers of ten (for example, 5 × 100, 5 × 70 ), and division by a single-digit divisor (based on inverse relations in multiplication tables). They devise and use algorithms for the addition and subtraction of numbers to two decimal places, including situations involving money. They add and subtract simple common fractions with the assistance of physical models.

**Space** ~ At Level 3, students recognise and describe the directions of lines as vertical, horizontal or diagonal. They recognise angles are the result of rotation of lines with a common end-point. They recognise and describe polygons. They recognise and name common three-dimensional shapes such as spheres, prisms and pyramids. They identify edges, vertices and faces. They use two-dimensional nets, cross-sections and simple projections to represent simple three-dimensional shapes. They follow instructions to produce simple tessellations (for example, with triangles, rectangles, hexagons) and puzzles such as tangrams. They locate and identify places on maps and diagrams. They give travel directions and describe positions using simple compass directions (for example, N for North) and grid references on a street directory.

**Measurement, Chance and Data** ~ At Level 3, students estimate and measure length, area, volume, capacity, mass and time using appropriate instruments. They recognise and use different units of measurement including informal (for example, paces), formal (for example, centimetres) and standard metric measures (for example, metre) in appropriate contexts. They read linear scales (for example, tape measures) and circular scales (for example, bathroom scales) in measurement contexts. They read digital time displays and analogue clock times at five-minute intervals. They interpret timetables and calendars in relation to familiar events. They compare the likelihood of everyday events (for example, the chances of rain and snow). They describe the fairness of events in qualitative terms. They plan and conduct chance experiments (for example, using colours on a spinner) and display the results of these experiments. They recognise different types of data: non-numerical (categories), separate numbers (discrete), or points on an unbroken number line (continuous).They use a column or bar graph to display the results of an experiment (for example, the frequencies of possible categories).

**Working Mathematically** ~ At Level 3, students apply number skills to everyday contexts such as shopping, with appropriate rounding to the nearest five cents. They recognise the mathematical structure of problems and use appropriate strategies (for example, recognition of sameness, difference and repetition) to find solutions. Students test the truth of mathematical statements and generalizations. Students use calculators to explore number patterns and check the accuracy of estimations. They use a variety of computer software to create diagrams, shapes, tessellations and to organise and present data.

### Years 5 and 6 (VELS Level 4)

**Number** ~ At Level 4, students comprehend the size and order of small numbers (to thousandths) and large numbers (to millions). They model integers (positive and negative whole numbers and zero), common fractions and decimals. They place integers, decimals and common fractions on a number line. They create sets of number multiples to find the lowest common multiple of the numbers. They interpret numbers and their factors in terms of the area and dimensions of rectangular arrays (for example, the factors of 12 can be found by making rectangles of dimensions 1 × 12, 2 × 6, and 3 × 4). Students identify square, prime and composite numbers. They create factor sets (for example, using factor trees) and identify the highest common factor of two or more numbers. They recognise and calculate simple powers of whole numbers (for example, 24 = 16). Students use decimals, ratios and percentages to find equivalent representations of common fractions (for example, 3/4 = 9/12 = 0.75 = 75% = 3 : 4 = 6 : 8). They explain and use mental and written algorithms for the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of natural numbers (positive whole numbers). They add, subtract, and multiply fractions and decimals (to two decimal places) and apply these operations in practical contexts, including the use of money. They use estimates for computations and apply criteria to determine if estimates are reasonable or not.

**Space** ~ At Level 4, students classify and sort shapes and solids (for example, prisms, pyramids, cylinders and cones) using the properties of lines (orientation and size), angles (less than, equal to, or greater than 90°), and surfaces. They create two-dimensional representations of three dimensional shapes and objects found in the surrounding environment. They develop and follow instructions to draw shapes and nets of solids using simple scale. They describe the features of shapes and solids that remain the same (for example, angles) or change (for example, surface area) when a shape is enlarged or reduced. They apply a range of transformations to shapes and create tessellations using tools (for example, computer software).

**Measurement, Chance and Dat**a ~ At Level 4, students use metric units to estimate and measure length, perimeter, area, surface area, mass, volume, capacity time and temperature. They measure angles in degrees. They measure as accurately as needed for the purpose of the activity. They convert between metric units of length, capacity and time (for example, L–mL, sec–min). Students describe and calculate probabilities using words, and fractions and decimals between 0 and 1. They calculate probabilities for chance outcomes (for example, using spinners) and use the symmetry properties of equally likely outcomes. They simulate chance events (for example, the chance that a family has three girls in a row) and understand that experimental estimates of probabilities converge to the theoretical probability in the long run. Students recognise and give consideration to different data types in forming questionnaires and sampling. They distinguish between categorical and numerical data and classify numerical data as discrete (from counting) or continuous (from measurement). They present data in appropriate displays (for example, a pie chart for eye colour data and a histogram for grouped data of student heights). They calculate and interpret measures of centrality (mean, median, and mode) and data spread (range).

**Working Mathematically** ~ At Level 4, use students recognise and investigate the use of mathematics in real (for example, determination of test results as a percentage) and historical situations (for example, the emergence of negative numbers). Students develop and test conjectures. They understand that a few successful examples are not sufficient proof and recognise that a single counter-example is sufficient to invalidate a conjecture. Students use the mathematical structure of problems to choose strategies for solutions. They explain their reasoning and procedures and interpret solutions. They create new problems based on familiar problem structures. Students engage in investigations involving mathematical modelling. They use calculators and computers to investigate and implement algorithms (for example, for finding the lowest common multiple of two numbers), explore number facts and puzzles, generate simulations (for example, the gender of children in a family of four children), and transform shapes and solids.